Built with Brisbane tuff from the nearby kangaroo point Cliffs and sandstone from a quarry near today's Albion Park racecourse, it is now the home of the royal Historical Society of Brisbane. It contains a museum and can also be hired for small functions. Greater Brisbane had a density of 148 people per square kilometre in 2016. 55 like most Australian and North American cities, Brisbane has a sprawling metropolitan area which takes in excess of one hour to traverse either north to south or east to west by car without traffic. Pre-1950 housing was often built in a distinctive architectural style known as a queenslander, featuring timber construction with large verandahs and high ceilings. The relatively low cost of timber in south-East queensland meant that until recently most residences were constructed of timber, rather than brick or stone. Many of these houses are elevated on stumps (also called "stilts that were originally timber, but are now frequently replaced by steel or concrete.
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The cbd covers.2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) and is walkable. Central streets are named after members of the summary house of Hanover. Queen Street is Brisbane's traditional main street. Streets named after female members ( Adelaide, alice, ann, charlotte, elizabeth, margaret, mary ) run parallel to queen Street and queen Street Mall (named in honour of queen Victoria ) and at right angles to streets named after male members ( Albert, edward, george, william. The city has retained some heritage buildings dating back to the 1820s. The Old Windmill, in Wickham Park, built by convict labour in 1824, 50 51 is the oldest surviving building in Brisbane. The Old Windmill was originally used for the grinding of grain and a punishment for the convicts who manually operated the grinding mill. The Old Windmill tower's other significant claim to fame, largely ignored, is that the first television signals in the southern hemisphere were transmitted from it by experimenters in April 1934—long before tv commenced in most places. These experimental tv broadcasts continued until World War. 50 The Old Commissariat Store, on William Street, built by convict labour in 1828, was originally used partly as a grainhouse, has also been a hostel for immigrants and used for the storage of records.
Also, on the west, are the higher mount Glorious, (680 m and mount Nebo (550 m). The city is on a low-lying floodplain. 47 Many suburban creeks criss-cross the city, increasing the risk of flooding. The city has suffered three major floods since colonisation, in February 1893, january 1974, and January 2011. The 1974 Brisbane Flood occurred partly as a result of " Cyclone wanda ". Heavy rain had fallen continuously for three weeks before the australia day weekend flood (26). 48 The flood damaged many parts of the city, especially the suburbs of Oxley, bulimba, rocklea, coorparoo, toowong and New Farm. The city botanic slogan Gardens were inundated, leading to a new colony of mangroves forming in the city reach of the Brisbane river. 49 Urban structure edit The Brisbane central business district (CBD) lies in a curve of the Brisbane river.
44 45 Brisbane also gained further international recognition, hosting the final goodwill Games in 2001, and also some of the games in the 2003 Rugby world Cup, as well as the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit. Daytime skyline of Brisbane's central business district from mount coot-tha, 2017 geography edit satellite image of Brisbane metropolitan Area brisbane is in the southeast corner of queensland. The city is centred along the Brisbane river, and its eastern suburbs line the shores of Moreton bay. The greater Brisbane region is on the coastal plain east of the Great dividing Range. Brisbane's metropolitan area sprawls along the moreton bay floodplain from Caboolture in the north to beenleigh in the south, and across to Ipswich in the south west. The city of Brisbane is hilly. 46 The urban area, including the central business district, are partially elevated by spurs of the herbert taylor Range, such as the summit of mount coot-tha, reaching up to 300 metres (980 ft) and the smaller Enoggera hill. Other prominent rises in Brisbane are mount Gravatt and nearby toohey mountain. Mount Petrie at 170 m (560 ft) and the lower rises of Highgate hill, mount Ommaney, stephens mountain and Whites Hill are dotted across the city.
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The State government under Joh Bjelke-petersen began a major program of change and urban renewal, beginning with the central business district and inner suburbs. Trams in Brisbane were a popular mode of public transport until the network was closed in 1969, leaving Melbourne and one line in Adelaide as the last Australian state capitals to operate a trams until Sydney begun operation of a new system in 1997. Clarification needed The 1974 Brisbane flood was a major disaster which temporarily crippled the city. During this era, brisbane grew and modernised rapidly becoming summary a destination of interstate gost migration. Some of Brisbane's popular landmarks were lost, including the bellevue hotel in 1979 and Cloudland in 1982, demolished in controversial circumstances by the deen Brothers demolition crew.
Major public works included the riverside Expressway, the gateway bridge, and later, the redevelopment of south Bank, starting with the queensland Art Gallery. Brisbane hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 1988 World Exposition (known locally as World Expo 88 ). These events were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction and development not previously seen in the state of queensland. 42 43 Brisbane's population growth has exceeded the national average every year since 1990 at an average rate of around.2 per year. Twenty-first century edit After two decades of record population growth, Brisbane was hit again by a major flood in January 2011. The Brisbane river did not reach the same height as the previous 1974 flood but still caused extensive damage and disruption to the city.
30 Free settlers entered the area over the following five years and by the end of 1840 Robert Dixon began work on the first plan of Brisbane town, in anticipation of future development. 31 queensland was separated from New south Wales by letters Patent dated, proclaimed by sir george ferguson Bowen on 10 December 1859, whereupon he became queensland's first governor, 32 with Brisbane chosen as its capital, although it was not incorporated as a city until 1902. Twentieth century edit over twenty small municipalities and shires were amalgamated in 1925 to form the city of Brisbane, governed by the Brisbane city council. Was a significant year for Brisbane with the completion of Brisbane city hall, then the city's tallest building and the Shrine of Remembrance, in anzac square, which has become Brisbane's main war memorial. 35 These historic buildings, along with the Story Bridge which opened in 1940, are key landmarks that help define the architectural character of the city. During World War ii, brisbane became central to the Allied campaign when the amp building (now called MacArthur Central ) was used as the south West Pacific headquarters for General douglas MacArthur, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to hollandia.
MacArthur had previously rejected use of the University of queensland complex as his headquarters, as the distinctive bends in the river at St Lucia could have aided enemy bombers. Also used as a headquarters by the American troops during World War ii was the t g building. 36 About one million us troops passed through Australia during the war, as the primary co-ordination point for the south West Pacific. 37 In 1942 Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting us military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians which resulted in one death and hundreds of injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the battle of Brisbane. 38 Postwar Brisbane had developed a "big country town" stigma, an image the city's politicians and marketers were very keen to remove. 39 In the late 1950s an anonymous poet known as The Brisbane bard generated much attention on the city which helped shake this stigma. 40 41 Despite steady growth, Brisbane's development was punctuated by infrastructure problems.
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26 They were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the german Station. 27 Later in the 1860s many german immigrants from the Uckermark region in Prussia as well as other German regions settled in the bethania- beenleigh and Darling Downs areas. These immigrants were selected and assisted through immigration programs established by john Dunmore lang and Johann Christian heussler and were offered free passage, good wages and selections of lab land. 28 29 The penal settlement under the control of Captain Patrick logan flourished with the numbers of convicts increasing dramatically from around 2 men. 30 he created a substantial settlement of brick and stone buildings, complete with school and hospital. He formed additional outstations and made several important journeys of exploration. He is also infamous for his extreme use of the cat o' nine tails on convicts. The maximum allowed limit of lashes was 50 however Logan regularly applied sentences of 150 lashes.
20 Oxley recommended Red Cliff point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore. 21 The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of mummy lieutenant Henry miller with 14 soldiers (some with wives and children) and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane river now known as North quay, 28 km (17 mi) south, which offered a more reliable water supply. The newly selected Brisbane region, at the time, was plagued by mosquitos. 22 Sir Thomas Brisbane visited the settlement and travelled 45 kilometres (28 mi) up the Brisbane river in December 1824, bestowing upon Brisbane the distinction of being the only australian capital city set foot upon by its namesake. 23 Chief Justice forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. 24 Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838. 25 German missionaries settled at zions Hill, nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper (18131894) and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries haussmann, johann Gottried Wagner, niquet, hartenstein, zillman, Franz, rode, doege and Schneider.
ranked Brisbane as a beta world city. 13 Contents History edit main articles: History of Brisbane and Timeline of Brisbane Pre-nineteenth century edit Indigenous Australians are believed to have lived in coastal south East queensland for 32,000 years, with an estimated population between 6,000 and 20,000 individuals before white settlement. 14 15 At this time, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the jagera people, including the turrbal group, 16 who knew the area that is now the central business district as mian-jin, meaning "place shaped as a spike". 17 Archaeological evidence suggests frequent habitation around the Brisbane river, and notably at the site now known as Musgrave park. 18 Nineteenth century edit The moreton bay area was initially explored by matthew Flinders. On, flinders landed at what is now known as woody point, which he named "Red Cliff point" after the red-coloured cliffs visible from the bay. 19 In 1823 governor of New south Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by john Oxley further explored Moreton bay. 20 Oxley discovered, named, and explored the Brisbane river as far as goodna, 20 kilometres (12 mi) upstream from the Brisbane central business district.
One of the surgery oldest cities in Australia, brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. Named after the Brisbane river on which it is located which in turn was named after Scotsman Sir Thomas Brisbane, the governor of New south Wales from 1821 to 1825 9 the area was chosen as a place for secondary offenders from the sydney colony. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe, 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of the central business district, but was soon abandoned and moved to north quay in 1825, opening to free settlement in 1842. The city was marred by the australian frontier wars between 18, and development was partly set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane, and the Great Brisbane Flood. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when queensland was proclaimed a separate colony from New south Wales in 1859. During World War ii, brisbane played a central role in the Allied campaign and served as the south West Pacific headquarters for United States Army general douglas MacArthur. 12 Today, brisbane is well known for its distinct queenslander architecture which forms much of the city's built heritage. It also receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably. The city is a popular tourist destination, serving as a gateway to the state of queensland, particularly to the gold coast and the sunshine coast, popular resort areas immediately south and north of Brisbane, respectively.
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This article is about the metropolitan area of Brisbane, queensland, australia. For other uses, see. City in queensland, australia, brisbane ( /brɪzbən/ ( listen ) 8 is the capital of and most populous city in the. Australian state of, queensland, 9 and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population.4 million, 1 and the, south East queensland region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population outsiders of more than.5 million. 10, the, brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the, brisbane river, about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth. 11, the metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane river Valley between Moreton bay and the. Great dividing Range, sprawling across several of, australia 's most populous local government areas (LGAs most centrally the, city of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous lga in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite.