The proper exercise of the virtue of religion involves three cooperant virtues having God as their direct object, and hence known as the "theological virtues". First there is faith. Strictly speaking, faith as a virtue is the reverent disposition to submit the human mind to the divine, to accept on divine authority what has been revealed by god. In the wide sense, as applying to all religions, it is the pious acceptance of the fundamental notions of deity and of man's relation to deity contained in the religious traditions of the community. In practically all religions there is an exercise of authoritative teaching in regard to the intellectual basis of religion, the things to be believed. These things individuals do not acquire independently, through direct intuition or discursive reasoning. They come to know them from the teaching of parents and elders, and from the observance of sacred rites and customs.
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Supernatural religion implies a writing supernatural end, gratuitously bestowed on man, namely a lively union with God through sanctifying grace, begun and imperfectly attained here, but completed in heaven, where the beatific vision of God will be its eternal reward. It also implies a special divine revelation, through which man comes to know this end as well as the divinely appointed means for its attainment. Subjection of oneself to god, based on this knowledge of faith and kept fruitful by grace, is supernatural religion. Subjective religion Religion on its subjective side is essentially, business but not exclusively, an affair of the will, the will to acknowledge by acts of homage man's dependence on God. We have already seen that the imagination and the emotions are important factors in subjective religion. The emotions, elicited by the recognition of dependence on God and by the deeply felt need of divine help, give greater efficacy to the deliberate exercise of the virtue of religion. It is worthy of note that the emotions awakened by the religious consciousness are such as make for a healthy optimism. The predominant tones of religion are those of hope, joy, confidence, love, patience, humility, the purpose of amendment, and aspiration towards high ideals. All these are the natural accompaniments of the persuasion that through religion man is living in friendly communion with God. The view that fear is in most instances the spring of religious action is untenable. In subjective religion several virtues must be included, most of them being of an emotional character.
On the welfare of the people depends that of the individual. Hence we find that religion in its outward worship is brief to a large extent a social function. The chief rites are public rites, performed in the name, and for the benefit, of the whole community. It is by social action that religious worship is maintained and preserved. Only in the society of one's fellow-men does one develop one's mental and moral faculties, and acquire religion. Religion is distinguished into natural and supernatural. By natural religion is meant the subjection of oneself to god, based on such knowledge of God and of man's moral and religious duties as the human mind can acquire by its own unaided powers. It does not, however, exclude theophanies and divine revelations made with the view to confirm religion in the natural order.
The obtaining of benefits in answer to prayer prompts to thankfulness. The immensity of God's power and wisdom calls up feelings of awe. The consciousness of having offended and estranged Him, and of thus deserving punishment, leads to fear and sorrow and the desire of reconciliation. Crowning all is the emotion of love springing from the contemplation of God's wonderful goodness and excellence. Hence we see how wide of the mark are the attempts to limit religion to the exercise of a particular faculty, or to identify it with ritual or with ethical conduct. Religion is not adequately described as "the knowledge acquired by the finite spirit of its essence as absolute spirit" ( Hegel nor as "the perception of the infinite " (Max Muller nor as "a determination of man's feeling of absolute dependence" (Schleiermacher nor as "the. These definitions, in so far as they are true, are only partial characterizations of religion. Religion answers to a deeply felt need in the heart of man. Above the needs of the individual are the needs of the family, and higher still are the needs of the clan and people.
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God, in which we honour and bookkeeping revere him as our supreme lord, love, him as our Father, and find in that reverent service of filial love our true perfection and happiness. Bliss-giving communion with the sovereign deity is, as has been pointed out, the end of all religions. Buddhism, with its aim to secure unconscious repose (Nirvana) through personal effort independently of divine aid, seems to be an exception. But even in primitive. Buddhism communion with the gods of, india was retained as an element of lay belief and aspiration, and it was only by substituting the ideal of divine communion for that of Nirvana that Buddhism became a popular religion. Thus, in its strictest sense, religion on its subjective side is the disposition to acknowledge our dependence on God, and on the objective side it is the voluntary acknowledgement of that dependence through acts of homage. It calls into play not simply the will, but the intellect, the imagination, and the emotions.
Without the conception of personal deity, religion would not exist. The recognition of the unseen world stirs the imagination. The emotions, too, are called into exercise. The need of divine help gives rise to the longing for communion with God. The recognized possibility of attaining this end engenders hope. The consciousness of acquired friendship with a protector so good and powerful excites joy.
If you feel that you may be the victim of religious discrimination in the workplace a professional can help determine your rights and the best way to proceed. Contact a local attorney for a free initial case review to discuss how they can help protect your religious freedom. From what has been said it is plain that the concept of deity required for religion is that of a free personality. The error of mistaking many nature-deities for the one true god vitiates, but does not destroy, religion. But religion ceases to exist where,. Pantheism, the deity is pronounced to be devoid of all consciousness.
A deity without personality is no more capable of awakening the sense of religion in the heart of man than is the all-pervading ether or the universal force of gravitation. Religion is essentially a personal relation, the relation of the subject and creature, man, to his Lord and Creator, god. Religion may thus be defined as the voluntary subjection of oneself to, god, that is to the free, supernatural, being (or beings) on whom man is conscious of being dependent, of whose powerful help he feels the need, and in whom he recognizes the source. It is a voluntary turning to, god. In the last analysis it is an act of the will. In other words it is a virtue, since it is an act of the will inclining man to observe the right order, springing from his dependence. 1) defines religion as "virtus per quam homines deo debitum cultum et reverentiam exhibent" (the virtue which prompts man to render. God the worship and reverence that is His by right). The end of religion is filial communion with.
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Duty to Accommodate an Employee's Religion. While employers have a duty to accommodate the religious beliefs of their employees, the employer does have some leeway in how it conducts its business. There is a point where the changes that are required to accommodate an employee become too burdensome on the employer. Most likely, a request by an employee to trade shifts when his or her faith prevents working on Saturdays is likely to be reasonable. However, less reasonable might be a request that an employee have a particular holy month off each year. Whether an employer's policy that limits the conduct of members of a particular faith is unreasonable depends on the circumstances. A job may also have certain qualifications or requirements that have the effect of limiting empire participation by a particular religious faith. Get a free initial Case review. Federal and state law requires that employees not be treated unfairly on the basis of religion.
Instead, a policy that makes no mention of a particular religion still functions to discriminate by affecting only certain religious groups. For example, a rule that forbade men from wearing any form of hat or other clothing on sign their heads during the business day might conflict with the dress rules of a particular religion that requires headwear be worn in public. Hostile work Environment Discrimination. The third form of discrimination occurs when the employer maintains (or allows) a hostile environment for employees of particular faiths. Typically, this arises where co-workers harass an employee on the basis of his or her faith, to the point of creating an abusive or intimidating work environment. The harassment must be severe or pervasive in order to constitute discrimination under a hostile work environment theory. Thus, a simple disagreement over religious principles would probably not constitute unlawful harassment. Severe insults or threats, or continuing words and actions meant to harass or intimidate an employee on the basis of religion, however, may cross the line of lawful conduct. The employer is culpable if it knew or should have known of the illegal harassment.
hostile environment. Disparate Treatment Discrimination, disparate treatment is an overt form of discrimination, involving unequal treatment on the basis of an employee's religion. An employer with a policy of refusing to hire or to promote (or only hiring and promoting) members of a particular religion would commit this form of discrimination. Some employers whose business purpose is religious in nature may be permitted to require certain employees to adhere to a particular faith. Courts will look closely, however, at the legitimacy of the employer's requirement for the position. Disparate Impact Discrimination, a more subtle form of discrimination arises through disparate impact. An employer discriminating in this way has no express policy for treating one or more religious groups unequally.
What's more, religion is not simply a matter of belief. The faithful practice their religion through various actions - styles of dress, manner of keeping or wearing one's hair, trying to recruit others to their faith, following certain diets, praying, fasting, avoiding certain language or behavior, and observing certain religious holidays. Put simply, the many characteristics of different religions provide ample ground for disagreement, conflict, or even harassment among employers and employees. Religion, Employment, and Anti-discrimination Laws, the first Amendment establishes certain boundaries in terms of government establishment of religion and the individual's right to free exercise of a chosen religion. In the private sector, the matter of religion is governed by state and federal civil rights laws. The primary statute in this area. Title vii of the civil Rights Act of 1964.
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Under the first Amendment, Americans enjoy two freedoms with respect to religion: the right to be free from a government-imposed religion, and a right to practice any religion. While private employers are not bound by the constitution's restrictions on government, they are subject to federal and state laws that ban religious discrimination in employment. Given the number of employed persons and the variety of religious faiths in this country, and the freedom we enjoy to express our views, the subject of religious discrimination continues to pose tough questions for employers and the courts. Religion in the workplace, because of our country's great diversity, employers may hire employees from a great variety of countries and religious backgrounds. In an ideal work environment, the religious beliefs of a given employee, or of the employer, do not create conflicts. Either is free to believe as resume he or she chooses and, as long as the work gets done satisfactorily, neither will encounter difficulty on the basis of religion. Yet, in the real world, a number of issues can arise to create friction. An employer and employee may discuss, or even argue over, religious principles.