For much of the British public, the Empire was what made Britain great. At the time, few would have disagreed with a statement made by joseph Chamberlain that the British race is the greatest of governing races that the world has ever seen. 12, while many historians, with the benefit of hindsight, have criticised the Empire as a financial drain on the British economy, this must not be confused with how the Empire was perceived at the time. Perhaps the most concise and accurate description of the popular perception of the British Empire is provided by joll: The commercial links with the Empire were undoubtedly important in 1902 they reached their highest point with about 38 per cent of British exports going. The idea of economic advantages of empire was more important than the reality in convincing the British in 1914 that the maintenance of their imperial position was worth the risk of war. 13, british foreign policy was entrenched by the idea of using the empire as a means to provide wealth to the nations capitalists. The government was largely influenced by what cain and Hopkins have described as Gentlemanly capitalism whereby: political imperatives at home rapidly became linked to economic and military success abroad as the creation of wealth from the burgeoning transactions sector promoted private gain, the fiscal needs. However, by the 20th century it was apparent to many that continued expansion of the Empire was out of the question.
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A more enlightening argument is that the german invasion of Belgium served as a convenient excuse to initiate a war, and one that made more sense to the British people than an obscure disagreement in Eastern Europe over the assassination of Archduke franz ferdinand. A speech made by sir Edward Grey to parliament serves as evidence to show that he was keen for people to rethink the issues in terms they would understand. I believe the country, so quickly has the situation been forced upon it, has not had time to realise the issue. It perhaps is still thinking of the quarrel between Austria and Servia, and not the complications of this matter which have grown out of the quarrel between Austria and Servia. 10, the complications Grey referred to in this speech was the issue of Belgian neutrality, to which he also suggests that there was an obligation on this country to protect. 11, there is a stark contrast between Greys position in this speech made before parliament and the ambiguous statement made by Grey in a letter to the French ambassador presented earlier in this essay. This further illustrates the idea that the invasion of Belgium was just a pretext to more complicated motives. The importance of maintaining Belgian neutrality therefore, should not be seen as the solitary reason for Britain joining the war against Germany. If the neutrality of Belgium were of primary importance to Britain then the foreign Secretary would have made this clear to germany without any ambiguities. To understand why Britain would enter into a continental report war against Germany we must first understand contemporary thinking in regards to what British interests were.
Ever since the sixteenth century it has been an article of faith in British naval policy that the low countries should not be allowed to fall into hostile hands and this belief has become almost visceral, irrespective of party politics. 8, belgium was important to Britain; this is not what is at question. The neutrality of Belgium and the other Low countries was extremely useful for the defence of the island of Britain (an invasion of Britain could potentially be a launched from there) and it provided ports for access to european markets. However, the idea of Belgian importance to British interests does not, when considered solely on its merits hold up to logical thinking as a reason to initiate war with Germany. According to a report made by sir Edward Goschen, the British Ambassador in Berlin, the german Chancellor was very agitated by the British decision to position herself closer to France. The report claims von Bethmann-Hollweg believed that it was terrible that just for a scrap of paper Great short Britain was going to make war on a kindred nation who desired nothing better than to be friends with her. 9, this report seen without any further information on the context of the outbreak of the war would make it appear that the occupation of Belgium was not intended to be a hostile manoeuvre against Britain.
6, this essay however, is not out to consider German thinking in the build up to the first World War, but to consider why Britain was to join the war. Regardless of German considerations when the Schlieffen Plan was initiated, a conclusion that may be drawn from all of this is that, as Sir Edward Grey stated himself, (see above) the neutrality of Belgium was not decisive in the British decision to go to war. This was because it engelsk was always the intention of Britain to go to war if Germany were to create one. Since the neutrality of Belgium was used by Britain as the official justification for war, it seems sensible to first consider the importance of Belgian neutrality in British foreign policy. Sheffield has orchestrated a large part of his assessment around the idea that the german invasion of Belgium made British entry into the war virtually inevitable. Howard too, has suggested that the invasion of Belgium was most important in the decision-making in Britain as to whether to enter the war. In Britain the invasion of Belgium united what had until then been a deeply divided public opinion.
4, such apparent indecisiveness may have given Germany the idea that Britain did intend to remain neutral in a continental conflict and thus encouraged Germany to pursue with its war aims. Whilst Greys stance does not rule out military intervention, the wavering posture of Britain documented in this letter, just four days prior to the invasion of Belgium may have been interpreted by germany as confirmation of the assumption made by bethmann-Hollweg that Britain intended. The invasion of Belgium would, as we know, be provided as the context for Britain joining the conflict against Germany, so it remains questionable as to why Grey would not provide a more assertive statement as to British intentions if Belgium were to be invaded. Lynn-Jones has established an interesting argument that British ambiguity during the july crisis was fuelled by a détente between Britain and Germany that had existed since 1911 and a belief that the: crisis could be managed not by threatening Germany, but by attempting to cooperate. In Germany, the détente contributed to the ultimately false expectations that Britain would remain neutral. 5, an alternative view of the german willingness to invade belgium rests in the idea that Germany had already accepted that Britain was to be a part of the war. Sheffield has gone further to suggest that German war planners had contemplated this, but had: underestimated its importance. If the Schlieffen Plan had worked and France and Russia had been defeated in short order, the ability of Britain to tip the balance in a protracted war of attrition would have been immaterial.
M: The telegraph: Kindle
I bet we see paper a similar offering from another national newspaper soon. Related, filed Under: Blogging, mainstream Media, online media, politics, social Networks, trends, weblogs, trackbacks. The first World War is perhaps best summed up, in British popular memory by a statement made in the television show. Blackadder when Captain Edmund Blackadder makes the assertion that field Marshal haig is about to make yet another gargantuan effort to move his drinks cabinet six inches closer to berlin. 1, the comment may have been made for comic effect, but it strikes a chord with the idea that is held by many of the British public that the first World War was fought over nothing but trivial issues amongst a tiny elite.
Indeed, as Sheffield has stated, blackadder simply would not work in the absence of a british national perception of the first World War. 2, however, as this essay will attempt to justify, the idea that Britain went to war for no reason is without charge; Britain went to war to preserve its national interests that were threatened to such an extent that it faced no other realistic opportunity. The issue, brought up by fischer and reconsidered by joll that German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg may have over-estimated Germanys strength and, above all, maintained up to the final crisis an unfounded belief in the probability of Britains neutrality is something that requires further consideration. 3, british indecisiveness is demonstrated by a letter dated from British Foreign Secretary sir Edward Grey to British Ambassador to France, grey states: Up to the present moment, we did not feel, and public opinion did not feel, that any treaties or obligations of this. Further developments might alter this situation and cause the government and Parliament to take the view that intervention was justified. The preservation of the neutrality of Belgium might be, i would not say a decisive, but an important factor, in determining our attitude.
An enticing and bold invitation to learn something of the great themes of the past century. . — Fritz Stern, author of five germanys i have known. May 10, 2007 by neville hobson. Today the, daily telegraph newspaper launched, my telegraph, a free service that enables readers to set up their own blog. An interesting move a first by a national uk newspaper? which is a good example of how a mainstream medium can use social media as a means of connecting its readership with the paper and vice versa.
Maybe it will even develop where reader blogs become news sources for the paper. Le monde in France as an example. Ive not done that from any political leaning (the telegraph traditionally is a conservative paper) but to see how it works, and because it was dead easy. Id do the same. The guardian (traditionally a labour newspaper) had such an offering. More to come soon, according to Shane richmond, the online telegraphs communities editor: The finished my telegraph is just a piece of a larger site but I cant tell you any more about that at the moment. My telegraph is just in time for plenty of political chit-chat in the coming months following todays hot news across all media about. Tony Blairs resignation next month.
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One could not hope thesis for a better guide; Ross's knowledge of both music and the historical forces that shaped it is deep and nuanced." — sudip Bose, the American Scholar "Insightfully original. Dramatic, erudite, and culturally expansive." — johanna keller, Chamber Music advance praise " The rest Is noise reads like a sprawling, intense novel, one of utopian dreams, doom, and consolation, with the most extraordinary cast of characters from music and history alike." — osvaldo golijov. A masterpiece." — emanuel Ax "With every page you turn, the story departs further from the old fairy tale of giants bestriding the earth and looks more like the twentieth century we remember, with fallible human beings reacting to, reflecting, and affecting with symbolic sounds. And biography turn the pages you. — richard Taruskin, author of the Oxford History of Western Music "Alex Ross has produced an introduction to twentieth-century music that is also an absorbing story of personalities and events that is also a history of modern cultural forms and styles that is also. The rest Is noise is cultural history the way cultural history should be written: a single strong narrative operating on many levels at once. What more do you want from a book? That it be intelligently, artfully, and lucidly written? Its those things, too." — louis Menand, author of The metaphysical Club "you don't have to be an aficionado of modern music to love this book: Alex Ross's extraordinary gifts as a writer, his deep knowledge of music, and his fresh forays into cultural history.
This history of modern sounds develops into an intimate history of modern souls as well." — boyd Tonkin, The Independent ".comprehensive, imaginatively wrought, insightfully informative and narrow vastly entertaining." — jed Distler, The Gramophone "Ross takes the extremes, the wild diversity and contradictions as manifest realities. Now, for the first time, ross has turned his feuilletonists sensibility to a longer form, the book, and hes made a terrific debut on the big stage. The rest Is noise tells a compelling, epic, and entirely human story." — jan Swafford, The wilson quarterly "Ross's achievement is all the more astounding because it makes music essential to the understanding of history beyond the history of the music itself. And what could matter more than that?" — jonathan Rabb, Opera news "A towering accomplishment — an essential book for anyone trying to understand and appreciate one of the most fertile and explosive centuries in the history of classical music." — kyle macMillan, denver Post. The result is a massively erudite book that wears its learning lightly." — adam Kirsch, new York sun "With perpetual grace and excitement, ross reanimates music buried in history and super-obscure record stores, and allows us to feel just how contemporary it can." —. This elegant book imparts to the music itself — that airy and elusive vibration — what so many critics cannot: three dimensions." — james Marcus, newsday ".a narrative that embraces the contradictions that characterize so much about the century just past, both in life and. Ross does not simply catalog major figures and artistic highlights, but presents music as an exciting phenomenon vitally related to broader political and social developments. He grasps music on a profound, composerlike level." — zachary lewis, Cleveland Plain dealer "Ross's brave goal is nothing less than to bridge the gap between modern composers and listeners. In this task, he is almost phenomenally successful." — timothy mangan, Orange county register "Early into The rest Is noise, i felt like i was reading a book i had been waiting for all my life." — juliet Waters, c-ville "Sweeping yet compulsively cid technical.
his stunning narrative. The new Yorker s visionary music critic Alex Ross comes closer than anyone to describing the spellbinding sensations music provokes. The rest is noise spins out seamlessly and is a joy to read." — blair Tindall, financial Times "A sprawling tour de force. The book has the force and scope of a heroic symphony in its own right." — fred Kaplan, Slate "Ross has an almost uncanny gift for putting music into words. No other critic writing in English can so effectively explain why you like a piece, or beguile you to reconsider it, or prompt you to hurry online and buy a recording." — the Economist "Modern music has lacked its The Shock of the new. Now, in The rest is noise, it has one." — ivan Hewett, The daily telegraph "Amply perceptive, eloquent, persuasive, and remarkably informative." — john Simon, The new Criterion "In The rest Is noise, alex Ross shows himself to be a surpassingly eloquent advocate for beauty. Ross takes the extremes, the wild diversity and contradictions as manifest realities to be understood through their relationships, rather than antagonisms that must cancel each other out." — the wire "An utterly gripping account of the relationship between music and public life in the last. The rest Is noise is a wonderful book, both as an account of 20th-century music and as something of a cautionary tale about the influence of politics on art." — ian Burnside, the Scotsman "The new Yorker s supremely gifted critic tells the story. Here is a writer who can link life and work without trivialising either.
Best of all are the moments when Ross really strikes you dumb with wonder, moments when the authors passion for the supreme significance of music raises his erudition to a new level." — life bryan Appleyard, The sunday times (UK) There seems always to have been. The impossibility of it gives me hope. Fast-forwarding through so many music-makers creative highs and lows in the company of Alex Rosss incredibly nourishing book will rekindle anyones fire for music. . — björk "Excellent." — neil Tennant, pet Shop boys "The best book in the world about the most boring subject ever." — jessica Pressler, new York daily Intel "This is the best general study of a complex history too often claimed by academic specialists. An impressive, invigorating achievement." — stephen Walsh, washington Post "What powers this amazingly ambitious book and endows it with authority are the author's expansive curiosity and refined openness of mind." — jamie james, los Angeles Times "Music in the 20th century is littered with great. The rest Is noise the story of 20th-century music in completely fresh and unblinkered ways." — jeremy eichler, boston Globe "Print is silent. Which is why the task of writing about music is so difficult.
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Winner of the 2007, national book critics Circle Award for criticism, the 2008 guardian First book award, a 2010 Premio napoli prize in foreign literature, the 2011 Grand Prix des Muses, and a music Pen Club prize in Japan; finalist for the pulitzer Prize. New York times's 10 Best books of 2007 ; also on plan best-of-the-year lists in the, washington Post, m, the, la times, new York, time, the Economist, slate, newsweek, the, times of London, the. Sunday times, the, guardian, the, observer, the, financial Times, and the. Profile : "The best Listener in America doree shafrir, new York Observer, audio stories : wbur's. On point, amazon's, the wire, npr's, all Things Considered, wnyc's Mad About Music, the leonard Lopate show, wfyi in Indianapolis. Starred review, publishers weekly "A benchmark book that should eventually become a classic history of the 20th century." — kirkus reviews, starred review "The best book on what music is about — really about — that you or I will ever own." — alan Rich. A great achievement." — geoff dyer, new York times book review (cover review) "Just occasionally someone writes a book you've waited your life to read. Alex Ross's enthralling history of 20th-century music is, for me, one of those books." — alan Rusbridger, The guardian "Ross is a supremely gifted writer who brings the political and technological richness of the world inside the magic circle of the concert hall, so that.